Team Leader - Technical and Vocational Education and Training - Regional Office for Southern Africa, Lilongwe, Malawi

Team Leader - Technical and Vocational Education and Training - Regional Office for Southern Africa, Lilongwe, Malawi 

Communications Coordinator, WASH Catalysts Malawi (Engineers without Borders)

Now in its 15th year, the EWB Fellows Program exists to develop a cadre of Systems Change Leaders by equipping them with the opportunities, competencies and skills needed to build a more thriving and sustainable world. Every year we recruit 25-30 outstanding people for the 12-month Fellowship,placing successful candidates in one of our founding-stage Ventures, or one of our ecosystem partner organizations, located throughout Sub Saharan Africa.
EWB is offering an incredible Fellowship opportunity as a Communications Lead with the WASH Catalysts venture, based in Malawi. The full job description, includes application instructions and details about the opportunity. For more information about our other fellowship opportunities, please see our career page.
Applications close July 23rd, 2016 at midnight EST, but applications will be reviewed on a rolling basis so please apply immediately.
Additionally, if you feel like you would make a great Fellow but not sure if you fit the qualifications involved in the role above. Submit a general application here and you will be contacted by one of our staff.


Submitting your application for the EWB Fellowship involves two steps:
Step 1: Submit your CV/Resume to Please note the position you are applying for in the subject line ie. "Communications Coordinator, WASH Catalysts"
Step 2: Complete the following online application form.
Applications will be reviewed, and interviews scheduled on a rolling basis, so please submit your application as soon as possible. If the posting is still on our website, consider the role available.
For further detail about EWB, please read our Fellowship FAQour website and our manifesto.


2016 NETI Programme Positions in Child Protection, Communication for Development, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research, Social Policy, and Nutrition.
The New and Emerging Talent Initiative (NETI) is an entry point for professionals interested in an international career with UNICEF. As part of UNICEF’s global talent management strategy the NETI Programme focuses on attracting, selecting, developing and retaining new talent. The aim is to recruit candidates at the mid-career levels who will grow and develop in the organization. NETI participants work actively in multicultural environments within the development and humanitarian arenas, while contributing to delivering results for children.
The NETI Programme is currently recruiting for suitable candidates for the following functional areas at the P-3 level: Child Protection, Communication for Development, Monitoring, Evaluation and Research, Social Policy, and Nutrition. We invite candidates with at least 5 years of relevant professional work experience, a completed advanced degree (Master's degree or equivalent), proficiency in English and working knowledge of another UN language (Arabic, French, Mandarin, Spanish, or Russian) to apply.
All applicants will be required to complete a technical test questionnaire at the time of application. Only shortlisted candidates will be notified and will therefore advance to the next stage of the competitive selection process, which involves various additional assessments including a language proficiency test.
For full NETI Programme details and information on how to apply, please visit the NETI website at Applications will only be accepted online through UNICEF’s eRecruitment system, until 11:59pm EST, August 14, 2016.
For 70 years, UNICEF has been working on the ground in 190 countries and territories to promote children's survival, protection and development. The world's largest provider of vaccines for developing countries, UNICEF supports child health and nutrition, good water and sanitation, quality basic education for all boys and girls, and the protection of children from violence, exploitation, and AIDS. UNICEF is funded entirely by the voluntary contributions of individuals, businesses, foundations and governments.



The SADC Regional Fund for Water Infrastructure and Basic Sanitation (the Fund) was established as the key financing facility for the development and integration of the water sector in the countries of the SADC region. The objective of the Fund is to strengthen the water sector coordinating function of SADC, create an instrument to channel International Cooperating Partners (ICP’S) and to develop regional water and sanitation infrastructure.
The Programme Manager will head and manage the SADC Water Fund Management Unit, implement the programme and monitor and report on all aspects of the programme while ensuring that the programme objectives are achieved. This position will be based at the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA), in Midrand, and is for a period of 2 years. The DBSA is currently housing the SADC Water Fund Management Unit.
The Programme Manager will also be responsible to:-
  • Oversee the establishment and the institutionalisation of a functioning Fund Management Unit
  • Lead the programme planning, execution, monitoring and control and the operations according to the clients and funders agreements
  • Identify and implement expediting measures to prevent programme delays by actively engaging and managing project managers
  • Oversee the process of developing and implementing an effective marketing and fundraising strategy to grow the Programme Fund by broadening the mix of income streams, developing new streams of income including major donors
Minimum Qualifications and Experience required:-
  • The minimum qualification requirement is a technical degree (e.g. BSC/BEng Civil Engineering) and or equivalent
  • A relevant Master degree and or MBA will considered an added advantage
  • Project management training and experience in the water and sanitation sector is required
  • Further training in programme management will be considered an advantage
  • Exposure in, participating in the senior management committees, reporting and attending board meetings is essential
  • 10-15 years of post-graduate work experience in a similar job function at a programme level as well as the skills to manage teams of professionals
  • Experience of working in the SADC countries is essential
Submit the detailed CV to Thea Swardt on or online Via DBSA Careers
Closing date 29 July 2016

Related Documents

Malawi zoekt leraar met ICT-kennis

Tabletonderwijs in Malawi, een uniek project! 

VSO is een uniek project gestart in Malawi om het reken en taal onderwijs op de basisschool een boost te geven. Een digitale boost wel te verstaan! Met het VSO "Unlocking Talent"- programma wordt tabletonderwijs geintroduceerd. De leerresultaten zijn spectaculair. Geen wonder als je bedenkt dat klassen met honderd leerlingen eerder regel zijn dan uitzondering en dat kinderen hierdoor geen individuele aandacht kunnen krijgen. Met een paar uur tablet onderwijs per week krijgen ze dat wel.

Bekijk de website over dit programma en het inspirerende filmpje:

Het project zal worden uitgerold op 63 scholen in 10 districten voor de komende 3 jaar en er is veel belangstelling vanuit omringende landen om ook een start te maken met tablet onderwijs. Grijp nu je kans om hier zelf een bijdrage aan te leveren!
Wie zoeken wij?
Voor dit unieke programma is VSO Malawi op zoek naar ervaren leerkrachten basisonderwijs, die de leraren en schoolhoofden gaan trainen en coachen in het (aan)leren van deze digitale leermethoden en nieuwe manier van werken. Heb jij kennis van ICT en minimaal 5 jaar ervaring als leraar binnen het basisonderwijs?

Voor welke periode?
Start: September 2016 en Januari 2017
Duur: 2 jaar (evt 1 jaar voor ervaren docenten)

Wat vragen wij?
- Afgeronde PABO opleiding
- Minimaal 5 jaar ervaring in het basisonderwijs (voornamelijk onderbouw)
- Ervaring met tablet- en digitaal onderwijs en een digitale leeromgeving
- Sterke ervaring met project management (liefst natuurlijk gericht op introductie van digitaal onderwijs!)
- Ervaring met het trainen van (collega) docenten is een pre

Wie zijn wij?
VSO is een internationale ontwikkelingsorganisatie. Op aanvraag van lokale organisaties in Afrika en Azie zendt VSO deskundigen uit die hun kennis en ervaring delen. VSO levert een volledig uitzendpakket: vaccinaties, training, tickets, ziektekosten & repatrieringverzekering, visa & werkvergunning, woonruimte en begeleiding door het VSO kantoor in Lilongwe, Malawi.
VSO biedt een lokaal salaris: voldoende om lokaal een gezond en normaal leven te leiden.
Naast deze wat zwaardere onderwijsbaan hebben we ook altijd vacatures voor leerkrachten met uitsluitend 5+ jaar leservaring. Kijk voor meer of neem contact op met Hans Voerman op 030-2349012 of per mail
Jouw kennis is hard nodig! Reageer snel!

Chief of Party, Girls Education - Malawi

Save the Children seeks a Chief of Party (COP) for a USAID-funded program in Malawi, Let Girls Learn. The program will deliver an innovative approach to ensure adolescent girls get the education they deserve working with all members of the communities. Building upon USAID and other donor education programs that support girls access to schooling, this initiative will enhance existing programs, leverage public-private partnerships, and challenge organizations and governments to commit resources to lift up adolescent girls worldwide. The Let Girls Learn initiative will also tackle issues that prevent adolescent girls from completing their education by ensuring a quality education, reducing barriers to access, including harmful practices and attitudes, and empowering adolescent girls and creating supportive communities and social norms.
This position will be filled if the funding is awarded to Save the Children by the donor.
The COP will be responsible for providing technical leadership and overall management direction for the project. S/he is also responsible for project inputs, program strategy, operations, external representation and coordination with project counterparts, USAID, the Government of Malawi, other donors within the sector and other programs as necessary. The COP is ultimately responsible for compliance with the agreement results and the oversight of project activities which will meet the stated objectives within the targeted districts.
  • Lead the project’s strategic, financial, and operational planning, including the annual work planning process and development of an appropriate exit strategy;
  • Oversee the timely submission of all deliverables to USAID, including quarterly and annual reports, annual work plans, performance indicators, financial reports, and regular results reporting as needed in addition to overall quality control;
  • Supervise all program staff and manage the work of all sub-grantees;
  • Ensure good practice by supporting the development of strong M&E mechanisms and a robust monitoring process;
  • Play a leading and substantive role in developing and implementing program activities;
  • Provide overall coordination of the institutional/organizational capacity building of local NGOs and other key stakeholders;
  • Fully inform Save the Children’s home/field office on all matters relating to the project, and maintain appropriate links with partner home/field offices;
  • Ensure that efficient systems to support all aspects of the project (including sub-grant management, financial, capacity building and performance monitoring and reporting) are in place and support the effective use of project resources in compliance with USAID regulations and Save the Children policies;
  • Represent the project with USAID, the Government of Malawi, donors, and partners;
  • Undertake any other tasks as assigned by the Country Director.
  • A Master’s Degree in Education, Administration, Management or related field is required;
  • At least 10 years demonstrated technical and management experience in the education sector, with experience working in Africa preferred;
  • Technical understanding of primary education, teacher training and gender-sensitive issues;
  • COP experience in education with an emphasis on girls’ education strongly preferred;
  • At least 8 years of demonstrated excellence in senior level management and leadership, including direct supervision of professional and support staff, evaluation of staff performance, and contract/grant management is preferred;
  • Experience with education programming for marginalized adolescent girls is required;
  • Experience with addressing quality of education, including retention rate and transition from primary to secondary;
  • Experience in institutional capacity building of government counterparts at the national and/or local level is preferred; strong analytical skills related to this technical area a plus;
  • Ability to identify, address and resolve communication issues within the activity and with external stakeholders and strong coordination skills are critical;
  • Demonstrated problem solving skills, a collaborative and flexible manner, creativity and willingness to innovate;
  • Ability to establish and maintain collaborative working relationships with USAID/Malawi, host government partners at the national and district levels, and personnel within the activity is required; strong visionary leadership and demonstrated professional accomplishments;
  • Excellent representational and interpersonal skills and demonstrated ability to lead and work effectively in team situations;
  • Strong working familiarity with USAID regulations, procedures, documentation and policies;
  • Fluent oral and written English communications skills is required. Knowledge of local languages preferred.

To apply, please click on the link below which takes you directly to the Save the Children website to submit your application for consideration:

Country Representative

Together we act before, during and after disasters to meet the needs and improve the lives of vulnerable people. We do this without regards to nationality, race, religious beliefs, class or political opinion, and based on our seven principles that guide our humanitarian work: Humanity, Neutrality, Independence, Voluntary service, Unity and Universality.
To strengthen the Netherlands Red Cross team in Malawi the International department is looking for a:
Position title : Country Representative
Duty station : Lilongwe, Malawi
Time period : 1 year, with possible extension
Starting Date : 1 September 2016
Malawi is a low-income sub-Saharan African country with a population of approximately 15 million people . The majority (80%) of the population lives in rural areas and depends on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihood . Malawi faces a number of disasters, natural and human-made which include floods, drought, stormy rains, strong winds, hailstorms, landslides, earthquakes, pest infestations, diseases outbreaks, fire and accidents. The intensity and frequency of disasters has been increasing, in light of climate change, population growth, urbanization and environmental degradation.
In synergy with other actors, particularly other Red Cross Movement actors present in the country, the Netherlands Red Cross (NLRC) seeks to effectively prepare and respond to emergencies and assist people in need. Our main bilateral partner is the Malawi Red Cross Society (MRCS), Particular areas of intervention with a community resilience objective are responding to sudden (natural) disasters and activities relating to WASH, Mother and Child Health, Food Security and Capacity Building of MRCS. Building on our experience in the country, the NLRC is progressing towards a longer term partnership with the MRCS. The position of Country Representative is key to ensuring continuity and further development of our vision and strategy in Malawi.
Purpose of the position:
To represent the Netherlands Red Cross (NLRC) in Malawi and build excellent relations with RC and non-RC actors, support the bilateral implementation of activities, maintain effective relations with donors, and proactively assist with mobilizing resources to enable continuity of NLRC support to MRCS.
Responsibilities/ Key Tasks:
  1. Strengthen the partnership between NLRC and the National Society in Malawi (MRCS) based on their Strategic Plan (2015-2019), which forms the bases of the Partnership Framework Agreement (FPA). Assess and implement capacity building and technical support to the HQ and branch staff of MRCS in coordination with other Partners in country.
  2. Relationship management in country with all movement partners, donor representatives, knowledge Institutes, Embassies, other international and national organizations, as well as national and international media. Special attention and responsibility towards overseeing successful implementation of EU and ECHO projects.
  3. Initiate portfolio development and resource mobilization.
  4. Develop and implement a country vision and develop an annual country work plan.
  5. Manage the local office of the NLRC including personnel, fixed assets, financial assets and other resources. Supervise and develop a team of senior NLRC delegates with different backgrounds and expertise. Oversee program implementation in according to project proposal(s), taking preventative and corrective action where necessary. Advise on recruitment of new staff.
  6. Ensure sound financial management of the programs/projects funded through/by the NLRC in accordance with the NLRC procedures, systems and financial manual, and regulations stipulated in signed contracts with the respective donors. Monitor that no commitments are made in the field for which no budget approval has been received. Report all incidents and advise the desk.
  7. Inform NLRC HQ about the social, political and economic trends in Malawi and the Southern Africa region. Review the security plan when necessary.
  8. Ensure high quality of NLRC visibility through reporting and contributions to the website and other media.
  9. Implement NLRC security policy for all program personnel and NLRC assets in Malawi
  10. In case of disasters the County Representative will assess the need for and possibilities of NLRC support and take action to mitigate the effects of the disaster as far as possible within the settings of the existing projects and in close collaboration with the NS, the Federation, ICRC and PNS.
Profile candidate
University (Masters) Degree or advanced degree;
Skills and experience
  • Minimum of 8 years experience in program management with proven ability to develop, write and present plans and proposals, including financial management, planning, reporting and budget control;
  • Minimum of 8 years experience in managing and guiding a team of professionals
  • Excellent understanding of key trends in international and humanitarian development especially of Disaster Management (preparedness, response and risk reduction) and/or Climate Change programs;
  • Experience in participatory and strategic planning and review techniques;
  • Excellent English communication skills;
  • Extensive experience working in International settings is required, working experience in Africa is preferred;
  • Practical knowledge of computer skills incl. Word, Excel;
Key competencies:
  • Excellent interpersonal skills and ability to establish and maintain effective partnerships and working relations in different cultural and organizational settings.
  • Assessment, analytical and interpretation skills at strategic level.
  • Ability to develop clear goals and steer team towards results and observing deadlines.
  • Shows persistence when faced with difficult problems or challenges, remains calm in stressful situations.
  • Positive thinker, able to see and act when an opportunity arises.
  • Ability to monitor and adjust plans and actions as necessary.
Position in the organization
The Country Representative will report hierarchically to the Regional Programme Coordinator based at NLRC HQ in The Hague. He/she will liaise with colleagues within the NLRC on matters such as HR, finance, logistics, and technical areas such as Health, WASH, Food Security/Livelihoods, and DRR, as well as for external communication for support, management of consortia, and technical backstopping.

Please send your resume in English and letter of motivation with reference to Annemieke van Teeffelen using the following link before 29 July 2016.
First round of interviews will be held in the first week of August, second round of interviews are planned for the second week of August. An assessment can be part of the selection procedure.
For more information about the position, you can contact Mrs. Carla Jonkers (before 15/7/2016) on +31 70 44 55 694 from 18/7/2016 onwards please contact Mrs. Eva Goes on +31 623817955.
For more information of the work of the Netherlands Red Cross please go to NLRC on Facebook: and Twitter:
Acquisition for his vacancy will not be appreciated

Malawi - Project Manager

Cooperazione Internazionale – COOPI, is a humanitarian, non-confessional and independent organization founded in 1965 in Milan. Over the last 50 years and through its 22 local offices in the South of the World, COOPI engaged itself in breaking the cycle of poverty and supporting populations affected by wars, socio-economic and environmental crisis or disasters in order to energize resilience and sustainable development.
In Malawi, COOPI is a development strategic partner and since 1999, date of establishment in the Country, it carries out a wide set of operations in Kasungu, Likoma, Mangochi and Salima in Humanitarian Relief, long term development, Livelihood improvement, Resilience against Climate Change, Disaster Risk Reduction and Management, Community Mobilization, Food Security, Agriculture Development, Irrigation, Sustainable Development and Sustainable Agriculture.
Within these operations, the Project Manager will be responsible of Lifuwu’s scheme rehabilitation and expansion to 156Ha and the equipment and training of Lifuwu Cooperative to become a fully functional and well-structured body able, at project conclusion, to sustainably and technically manage project outputs and build a commercial strain able to progressively re-launch its role as an Agro-business catalyser for Salima District with the ambition of becoming a main national actor for agriculture produce exports.
Main purpose of job
Duties and Responsibilities
He/She manages the implementation and coordination of the designated field project within a multi-sectorial programme (Irrigation, Agriculture development, Cooperative development, Food Security, Nutrition, Sustainable Tourism, and Climate Change). He/she manages and evaluates all aspects of the project, and facilitates the flow of information from the field to COOPI Malawi Country Office in Lilongwe. The Project Manager also plays a key role in liaison with local authorities, stakeholders, beneficiaries, and provides team leadership and security.
Specifically, he/she:
  • Oversees the overall implementation of the project in accordance to its outputs and outcomes ensuring that objectives are met within the required time frame and budget.
  • Is responsible to ensure that projects are implemented according to COOPI and EU (Donor) procedures and where necessary ensures preventative and corrective actions.
  • Follows the direction of COOPI Country Office regarding visibility, quality, strategy and technical guidelines.
  • Manages project field staff and ensures that staff management is harmonized and compliant with COOPI procedures, guidelines and ethical code of conduct.
  • Oversees the procurement process of the project and ensures its compliance with COOPI procurement procedures.
  • Ensures complete and timely reporting of activities to COOPI Malawi Head of Mission and to the Donor as required by the project.
  • Develops and maintains relationships with relevant stakeholders (e.g. beneficiaries, community leaders, local and national government officials, donors, UN agencies and other NGOs) and represents COOPI at meetings in order to facilitate and ensure smooth cooperation and strengthened partnerships.
  • Supervises and manages project budget, in collaboration with the Head of Mission and the Country Administrator, and in respect of COOPI procedures and Donor guidelines.
  • Monitors project activities according to the work-plan and timeline of activities ensuring timely reaction to project needs.
Minimum requirements:
  • Bachelor’s Degree in agriculture (with specialization in irrigation) or similar.
  • A minimum of 3 years of work experience in agriculture development in Developing Countries.
  • Proofed experience in Agribusiness, marketing and Cooperative development.
  • Proofed experience in project formulation, implementation and coordination within the development context through International NGOs, UN systems &/or Organizations.
  • Good knowledge and use of written and oral English (C1 Level minimum).
  • Good report writing skills.
Further requirements are an asset:
  • Postgraduate studies in Agriculture or similar.
  • Proofed Experience in working with different Donors (EU, ECHO, UKAID, WFP, FAO etc.).
  • Proactive aptitude in terms of planning and coordination with different Organizations.
  • Target oriented and problem solving aptitude.
  • Good leadership skills, aimed at managing and motivating a team.
  • Positive ability to bear stressful and complicated situations.
  • Diplomatic and confidentiality skills.

Dissemination Advisor

FHI 360 is a nonprofit human development organization dedicated to improving lives in lasting ways by advancing integrated, locally driven solutions. Our staff includes experts in health, education, nutrition, environment, economic development, civil society, gender, youth, research and technology — creating a unique mix of capabilities to address today's interrelated development challenges. FHI 360 serves more than 70 countries and all U.S. states and territories. We are currently seeking qualified candidates for the position of: Dissemination Advisor


Design Squad Global (DSG) connects after school programs for 10- to 13-year-olds around the world, empowering them to collaborate to solve real-world engineering problems and increase their cross-cultural understanding. Through DSG, youth work together on hands-on activities, learn teamwork and creative problem-solving, and discover how to use the engineering design process to express and develop their ideas. They begin to see the possibilities for applying science and engineering to their own lives, and learn to share their own perspectives, while appreciating the cultures and experiences of students from another country.
WGBH and FHI 360 piloted DSG in 30 after school programs in South Africa, Swaziland, Botswana, and the United States, and are now documenting lessons learned. Initial cohorts were supported by DSG facilitators, who provided hands-on support and troubleshooting services to after school educators.
WGBH and FHI 360 now plan to scale DSG to 130 new pairs of DSG Clubs in 7 countries (the four initial countries, as well as Malawi, Jordan, and Myanmar). While no direct DSG facilitator support will be provided, educators running a DSG Club will be supported by a Club Guide, a comprehensive and user-friendly set of educator training and club start-up materials, a website featuring a mechanism to identify and link with potential partner clubs, and an email help desk. Additionally, WGBH has prepared a toolkit of marketing and communications materials designed to interest and inform educators and organizations about DSG.
The Dissemination Advisor will lead the promotion of DSG in the identified country and the establishment of 20-25 new DSG Clubs per country. Strategies for encouraging uptake will differ between countries and may include partnering with local NGOs serving after school programs; working through local or national government to encourage adoption; and contacting after school programs or schools directly. The Advisor will also be responsible for providing some email support (supported by the DSG Program Manager where necessary) to participating DSG Clubs, and for providing data about DSG uptake to assist with the summative evaluation of the DSG program.

Job Summary / Responsibilities:

  • Provides technical support in the development and dissemination of tools, materials, reports, papers, and intervention for research projects.
  • Works closely with assigned team to ensure activities are implemented according to standard operating procedures (SOP’s).
  • Writes and edits technical reports and documents.
  • Assists with publications, web pages, and presentations.’
  • Conducts searches of published literature on evolving issues in assigned technical area.
  • Monitors and maintains protocols, instruments, data sets, manuals, training materials and reports.
  • Responds to requests and inquiries from internal and external staff.
  • Develops or writes technical briefs, reports, or other necessary materials to facilitate research, best practices, policies and procedures.
  • Assists with the implementation of research studies by monitoring and documenting processes.
  • Conducts analysis of program implementation to identify areas for improvement and propose appropriate technical strategy and guidelines.
  • Prepares reports and papers summarizing project results.
  • Delivers presentations at professional meetings and conferences.
  • Ensures project implementation adheres to company strategy and remains technically sound.
  • Provides leadership and team building at the task level.
  • Leads the design, development, planning, and implementation of global level innovative technical strategies.
  • Oversees all aspects of the programs/projects.
  • Develops strategies and tools for the design and implementation of specific technical components.
  • Analyzes data sets and technical assessment findings.
  • Develops and monitors work plans.
  • Provides leadership and team building at the project level.
  • Serves as company liaison to external organizations at professional meetings and conferences as assigned.


  • Bachelor's Degree or its International Equivalent - Economics, Education, Environment, Health, Human Development, Information Science, International Development, Social Sciences or Related Field.
  • Typically requires 8+ years of managing data collection and technical assistance experience.
  • Proficiency with database management software and on-line search tools required.
  • Has sensitivity to cultural diversity and understanding of the political, contextual, and ethical issues in assigned areas.
  • Articulate and professional and able to communicate in a clear, positive fashion with clients and staff.
  • Must be able to read, write, and speak fluent English.
  • Prior work experience in a non-governmental organization (NGO), government agency, or private company.
This job description summarizes the main duties of the job. It neither prescribes nor restricts the exact tasks that may be assigned to carry out these duties. This document should not be construed in any way to represent a contract of employment. Management reserves the right to review and revise this document at any time.
We offer competitive compensation and an outstanding benefit package. Please click here to visit FHI 360's Career Center for a list of all open positions.
FHI 360 is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer. FHI 360 is an equal employment and affirmative action employer whereby we do not engage in practices that discriminate against any person employed or seeking employment based on race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national or ethnic origin, age, marital status, disability, veteran status, genetic information or any other status or characteristic protected under applicable law.

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